Printed Circuit Board 101

pcbfabricationThe use of printed circuit boards in electronics has become integral. Typical PCBs have different passive and active components connected on the board. Glass fiber is commonly used to create the substrate. also provides pcb boards that are made from paper. These are less expensive and specifically used for household electrical devices. Copper, on the other hand, is used to make the printed circuits which can be etched or plated on the substrate. To prevent oxidation, tin-lead is coated on the copper circuits.

There are different advantages and disadvantages of using a printed circuit board.


Compact Size

Typical PCBs offered by contain many electronic components. Without a printed circuit board, there is no way to connect all these components with wires. It is the most convenient platform to assemble electronic components efficiently and compactly. Because of its compactness, complicated and large electronic circuits are developed in small forms.

Reduced Electronic Noise

Printed circuit boards reduce electronics noise that can degrade performance. Electrical components are organized on boards through minimizing electrical current path lengths between them. This results in low radiation and electromagnetic waves.

Cheaper Mass Production

PCBs are cheaper in terms of reproducing one design. All it takes is printing your design and etching it in a copper board. In addition, it is easy and simple to create. Multiple boards can be created at a time. Without printed circuit boards, it will be difficult to reproduce designs.

Ease in Repair and Diagnostics

A printed circuit board can be helpful in doing diagnostics. Its polarities and components are labeled. This label is convenient when installing and repairing components. Signal paths should be traced when performing diagnostics. It would be difficult to do if the traces are not well organized.

Minimal Erroneous Wirings and Short Circuits

Erroneous wirings and short circuits are less likely to occur because the board is embedded with copper tracks. Moreover, the circuits are designed using a computer. These are already tested for errors. You can use a software to design a board and test it before printing it.

Fixed Components

Since electrical components are held fixed by solder flux, they have immunity to movement. There are no loosed components. When devices are shaking or moving, you do not have to worry about electronic short circuits or component displacement.

No Inspection Needed

As mentioned earlier, printed circuit boards are designed on a computer. Thus, you do not need to further inspect on broken circuits. There is a high possibility that it will work.


Cannot be Updated

Once the printed circuit board is printed, it cannot be updated. You have to reprint the design again if you want to add parts. This process can be hassle especially when you will just add one component.

New Design for a Different Circuit

Since printed circuit boards are fixed, you cannot reuse designs. Different kinds of circuit have different designs.

Harm to the Environment

The etching process of PCBs can harm the environment. This type of board may not be one of your options if you are environmentally friendly.

Difficult to Repair when Damaged

Once a PCB is damaged, for instance by overheating or a short circuit, it is impossible to repair it. Unlike in bread boards, damaged components can be removed and replaced easily.


There are several advantages and disadvantages of using a printed circuit board. These advantages include compact size, reduced electronic noise, cheaper mass production, ease in repair and diagnostics, minimal erroneous wirings and short circuits, fixed components and no need for further inspection. Disadvantages include inability to update and reuse designs for another kind of circuit, harm to the environment and difficulty in repairing components when damaged.

What is a Movable Cubicle?

Nowadays people are always on the go. Business and leisure will take you to places far from home. The world is now fast-paced and not everyone can stay put.

moveablecontainerWhen moving around the country or the world, the biggest problem you will have to face is the difficulty of taking your things with you. Not everything can fit in your car and planes have expensive over-baggage fees.

Companies saw this situation and came up with a solution so people can have portable storage spaces. The movable cubicle became a trend for people who are always moving around but do not want to leave their things at home.

A moveablecontainer is one of the most recommended storage options today. Aside from the promise that this can store lots of items for you, it can also provide your items with an adequate basic protection from humidity, moisture, and other similar environmental elements. Given these advantages, you can take huge items and heavy things on the road. If you need the cubicle with the items overseas, you can have it delivered through boat.

A movable cubicle is also made of durable materials. This means that you can change the interior and turn it into whatever you need it to be. It can even act as some sort of trailer because you can fit your furniture inside the container. These containers are made out of steel. Because steel is a sturdy material, this can provide a relatively good amount of protection for your valuables.

You can install insulating and refrigerating equipment to a movable cubicle to help maintain low temperature inside the container. This is especially helpful if you are currently handling a food-related business. The low temperature inside the cubicle will help prolong the shelf life of the food items stored in it.

A movable cubicle can be rented or bought. One major factor to consider in acquiring a cubicle is your funds. If you will use it for only a few months or so, it’s recommended that you just rent one. If you will use it extensively and for long-term, it’s more sensible to just purchase a cubicle. The prices of these cubicles vary depending on the sizes and the materials used to construct the container.

Some companies provide a dedicated site for movable cubicles. This is where they keep all the containers safely guarded. These companies usually deliver these containers if you notify them timely. Therefore, you can just have them delivered at the time you will need it.

However, if you want to keep the cubicle close to your home, you have to check out the rules and regulations of the state you are in. Some states require residents to apply for a permit to keep a storage container within their residential property.

If you want to keep the container within your home premises, you have to consider the amount of available space on your property before renting a cubicle.

If you want to save more money in the long run, you can just buy a second-hand cubicle. This will allow you to get similar benefits that you can get from brand new cubicles but for a cheaper price. There are various people and establishments that offer second-hand cubicles for reasonable prices. Make sure to conduct your background research on them first before closing the deal with them. This will help ensure that you still get good quality merchandise from your money.

A cubicle is a smart investment for people who need their inventory and storage on the go. It will keep your furniture, documents, and things safe. With the right eye for detail and imagination, you can even turn these cubicles into something more than just a storage space.

Solving Common Keynote Speaker Problems

Being chosen as a keynote speaker is a great privilege for anyone. As a keynote speaker, you will be given the chance to inspire or motivate others through your speech. And to be successful in this undertaking, you will need to prepare yourself thoroughly. You must have your speech ready and polished days before the lecture and of course, you must practice your way of delivery.

However, no matter how prepared you may be, it is unavoidable that some problems may arise prior, during, or after conducting your lecture, so you should also go and visit this link When this happens, the first thing you should do is try to remain calm. Every keynote speaker has experienced dilemmas during conferences. This is very normal. Almost every problem has a solution so you do not need to worry.

To give you an idea of the problems that most keynote speakers have, here are the common four scenarios that you must try to avoid:

1.  You are unbelievably late for the lecture

motivational-speaker-successAs a professional, you’re aware of time’s importance. So, whenever you are invited to become a keynote speaker for an event, it is expected that you leave early to avoid being late to the event. However, some inevitable incidents may happen. While on your way to the venue, you might get stuck in traffic or your flight might get delayed causing you to be late. These happen to almost everyone and while they might make you seem unprofessional, they’re completely understandable.

When these happen to you, the best thing you could do is contact the event organizer. Explain your circumstance and apologize for being late. You should give out the details, such as where you currently are and your estimated time of arrival. In worst case scenarios wherein you cannot attend the lecture at all, apologize for the hassle and then try to reschedule.

2.  You lecture materials go wrong

Conducting a lecture means you have to provide supplementary materials such as lecture booklets or presentation slides. Preparing your visual aids prior to the lecture does not only mean you have to finalize your files, but it also entails creating a backup file and sending another set of files to your event organizer.

Nonetheless, on the day of the lecture, your files might get corrupted or the equipment might have technical problems. Instead of getting frustrated, you should keep yourself calm and try to ask for assistance. While the technicians are working on the dilemma, you can always proceed with the lecture or you can ask for a short break.

3.  Your audience starts to get bored

While the lecture attendees are very interested in what you have to say, there are unavoidable times when they will get bored. This usually happens in the middle of the lecture. Most keynote speakers commit the mistake of conducting a boring lecture because they just talk without aiming to get a response from their audience. The lecture then becomes dragging and the audience loses their interest.

To avoid this, a good keynote speaker tells anecdotes from time to time. He would include some personal experiences or any stories that are not just related to the topic, but are entertaining as well. If you are in this dilemma, try sharing some of your personal experiences and let this become a source of motivation for your audience. By doing this, you will be able to maintain your audience’s attention and interest.

4.  You cannot answer an attendee’s question

After your lecture, the attendees may ask you some questions regarding the speech you just delivered. Most of the time, you will be able to answer their inquiries without any difficulty. However, there are some queries which you cannot give a concrete answer to. Do not be disheartened when this happens. Instead of bluffing or giving out an uncertain answer, be honest and say that you are not sure. Assure your audience that you will try to search for an answer. Also, you may tell them that they may contact you if they wish to ask you some more questions.

By being aware of those scenarios, preparing for a speech and remaining calm during the event should be a bit easier.

HCG Diet Drops Can Build A Great Weight Loss Plan

Nutrition today is something that many people are thinking about in contrast to their weight loss plans. Millions of people push through a variety of different arenas in hopes that they can find a way to help their cause, and it doesn’t always work out. In fact, for the millions of people that think about losing weight, getting in shape, and hitting the gym often, there are also millions of people that do not make it, and end up giving up overall. If you don’t want to give up before the time is right, then you will want to look at things in the right manner. Take time to step back and see what actually works in terms of fitness, and then couple that with supplements such as hcg diet drops, and you’ll see a huge jump where others will only see a hardship.

The Natural Mechanics of Weight Loss

hcg diet dropsAt the simplest, your body can produce a fight against fat. It does so through the metabolic rate that you have. Everyone has a different metabolism, and as one ages, it gets slower and slower. You will find that you can try to boost it, but you’ll need to maintain a certain level of fitness to get it done right. Without a push in the right direction, you are not going to get the right balance. Balance is one of the most important aspects of how you lose weight, because it’s the right way to go about things in the right direction. If you worry more about the natural metabolic system, you will end up with better, faster results, guaranteed.

Getting there is not a simple matter, you have to think about things in a lot of different areas. The relationship that you have within the world of natural weight loss is something that is aided with hcg diet drops. If you look at this, and you understand how the body reacts to the movement that you have in place, you will end up with a positive solution moving forward, because it helps with a natural process. Most diets and exercise plans don’t really factor the metabolic rate into account, which is why hcg is so appealing as a supplement.

Doing Nothing

There are some people that want to see things work without action. Well, there is a way to get started, and that’s through just going forward with hcg diet drops. This can suppress the appetite, and therefore you will ingest fewer calories. Your caloric intake will drop to a point where you will end up with a positive overall solution. If you don’t ingest a lot of calories, you will end up with a slimmer waistline, but that’s not the end of the road. It’s just a starting point. It’s when you start to see results that you will want to start working towards something that will help you make gains, mainly exercise.

Sprinkle in exercise into your routine 3 times a week, and you will start to skyrocket in terms of seeing your fat cells diminish. After that, you are going to find that you could end up with a positive approach in regards to weigh management, and perhaps even see yourself at all new lows. Doing nothing can spark interest in weight loss, but it’s not the end result, so don’t assume that you can make everything happen without a bit of movement. Don’t go out there and do something extreme, just try to sprinkle in more movement in your life amidst adding hcg diet drops to your diet and nutritional guidelines. You could make serious gains on your goal, that’s for sure.

GW-501516 – The Big Question

GW-501516 was studied as a drug by GlaxoSmithKline. It is a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) receptor antagonist and was found to cause cancer in rats. Since then, further development was stopped by GlaxoSmithKline. It was seen as a possible cure to for cardiovascular disease, obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. It was found out to have a synergistic effect when combined with AICAR, or AICA ribonucleutide; in animal studies, the resulting combination was shown as having an interesting effect – it remarkably increases exercise endurance.

GW501516GW-501516 was first discovered in a collaborative research between Ligand Pharmaceuticals and GSK which kicked off in 1992. The first phase of trials, in 2000, was for the treatment of hyperlidimia. It was followed by phase I/II in 2002. Ligand Pharmaceuticals earned $1 million payment because GSK wanted to continue development of the compound. GSK had done two phase II clinical studies before ceasing development in 2007.

The Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors present in GW-501516 are said to have an effect on nuclear hormone receptors linked to glucose and lipid metabolism. It works at the gene level and impacts the metabolism of the muscle. Based on this, GW-501516 is not in the same category with restricted drugs that is akin to steroids because of the way the drug works in the body.

Tests involving GW-501516 was first conducted on mice. This resulted in increased muscle mass, decreased fat mass build-up, and increased glucose tolerance. Later on, more studies were done that demonstrated that there was a potential of developing a kind of tumor. There were three initial studies done by GSK on GW-501516 – two phase ones and a single phase two. The first phase I trial was brought to an end for reasons not explicitly stated. The second phase I trial was completed, as well as the phase II trial. In Australia, the use of GW-501516 was assessed in the treatment of high blood cholesterol; this was marked as the fourth phase.

A lot of people buy GW-501516, but the World Anti-Doping Agency, or WADA, has been warning them against the purchase of such drugs. WADA has been the leader in the charge opposing GW-501516 and put out an advisory in March 2013 highlighting the probable health risks that can be caused by GW-501516. This was more aimed towards those who buy GW-501516 in the black market. The advisory also sought to serve as an eye-opener to the athletes who buy and use GW-501516 as an endurance booster. Since 2009, WADA’s prohibited drug list has had peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors on it. PPARs have also been prohibited from in and out of competition by the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority.

WADA was not the only one taking action against GW-501516; the NCAA has also thrown itself into the mix and has stated that it would work together with the Committee on Competitive Safeguards and Medical Aspects of Sport to discern where the drug falls on their banned substances list. These organizations know for sure that GW-501516 is not easily obtained, meaning that the black market is the only place where they can be purchased and that the drug will be in short supply sooner or later. They also hope that that the increased price for the drug would discourage people that buy GW-501516.

In spite of the fact that governing bodies such as WADA and NCAA have issued warnings regarding GW-501516 and the still unclear possible health risks that may exist, there are still some who continue to buy GW-501516. It is no secret that there has been a history of illegal drugs and performance enhancing drugs on the black market and GW-501516 is up there. The question is though, should the substance really be treated with such negativity despite having proven benefits and unconfirmed downsides?

One Way to Avoid a Foreclosure is by Negotiating for a Loan Modification

A bad economy can have a devastating effect on the value of a home, more so after the market has peaked as what happened during the recent real estate market collapse. When home values are less than the original mortgage amount, which is what is happening in Long Island, this becomes known as an underwater mortgage. Exacerbated by a job loss or a medical emergency, an underwater mortgage can make many homeowners vulnerable to foreclosure.

A Long Island foreclosure lawyer can help a troubled homeowner facing foreclosure by exploring options in loan modification. A loan modification is a permanent restructuring of the mortgage where one or more of the terms of a borrower's loan are changed to provide a more affordable payment. With a loan modification, the goal of the borrower is to reduce the monthly payments but this will result in a higher overall mortgage amount. This can be accomplished by a reduction in interest, conversion of a variable interest rate to a fixed interest rate, or extension of the length of the term.

Long Island foreclosure lawyerTo be eligible for a loan modification, the borrower has to prove that current mortgage payments cannot be made due to a financial hardship. The borrower must also complete a trial period to demonstrate that the new monthly amount is workable. To evaluate an application, the lender will require documentation in the form of proof of income, a financial statement, bank statements, most recent tax returns, and a hardship letter that a Long Island foreclosure lawyer can assist in providing to the lender on behalf of the borrower.

Under the Real Estate Settlement and Procedures Act, a homeowner may exercise legal rights with respect to loan modification. If a home was refinanced and the current mortgage was completed within the last three years, the homeowner may rescind the mortgage and annul the finance charges upon failure by the lender to furnish expedient announcements to the homeowner. A Long Island foreclosure lawyer should be consulted about this matter.

In more drastic circumstances, a forbearance agreement may offer temporary relief for borrowers. The lender may consent to a reduction or suspension of mortgage payments for a particular duration and abstain from further foreclosure proceedings during the forbearance period. In return, the borrower will agree to continue with the payment at the end of the forbearance period, including additional amounts covering missed payments to make the account current. A Long Island foreclosure lawyer will also ensure that payments regarding the principal, interest, taxes, and insurance are all included in the forbearance agreement.

The borrower must be reminded that a forbearance agreement is only an interim respite due to a momentary hardship that has caused a lapse in mortgage payments. Nevertheless, it allows avoidance of foreclosure until such time that the borrower’s standing improves. In some cases, depending on the ability of the Long Island foreclosure lawyer, the lender may be lenient enough as to extend the forbearance period if the adversity experienced by the borrower is prolonged.

On the other hand, a repayment plan allows a borrower to make reduced mortgage payments over a specified length of time with the end in view of making the account current after the given period. The idea is to spread the past due amount over several months so that payment is easily affordable but consistent with the overdue amount added to each of the monthly payments. The length of payment will vary depending on each borrower’s capacity to pay but the goal is for the mortgage to eventually become current. The amount of payments and duration of the repayment plan can be influenced by the competence of the lawyer handling the negotiations.

The is committed to providing the highest quality and efficient legal services.

Materials Used In Making ID Lanyards

Why is it important for you to know the materials used in making lanyards?

ID lanyards have become an item that states a company’s identity and the wearer’s personality. As the wearer, your lanyard carries the name of the organization you belong to. It also provides security personnel an idea of the company or institution you are affiliated with.

Others have used ID lanyards for their marketing strategy too. Most companies nowadays have used these during events–customizing lanyards to display their company name or brand. It has been used as giveaways or price items.

So why exactly is it important to know the materials used?

This is because each lanyard material is made specifically for wearers working in a certain environment.

ID lanyardsAs ID lanyards are more used these days, it is best to also make sure that the ones you will be wearing and giving away fit the environment where it will be worn in most. First, it should be durable. If you are working with water around you, like in waterparks or ice plants, it is best to have lanyards made with materials that are good with water. If you are working as a coach, it is best to use one that is good with moisture. Second, knowing the materials used in your lanyard will help you maintain it. You can easily wash without worrying about watermarks, and so on. Third, you don’t have to worry about prints getting washed away or fading fast if you are using lanyards for promotion. There are materials used for such especially if you are having your company’s logo printed.

Materials Used

If you want to know the best ID lanyards you can use for a specific event, especially the materials it should be made of, here’s a list for you. Below are six of the most commonly used materials used in making lanyards.


Polyesters are the most common material used. Natural polyesters and some synthetic ones are biodegradable. While synthetic version of these does not provide a natural feel to the skin, it has certain advantage such as wrinkle resistance, durability and high color retention.

If you are offering lanyards for your business, customizing it is important. Polyester lanyards will do nicely for this job due to its resistance to color fading plus you can easily print your logo and company name.


The satin fabric is usually glossy on its surface but dull on the back. Due to its luster, it has become a widely used fabric for apparels like baseball jackets, athletic shorts, nightgowns, blouses and so on. This has also been used in making bed sheets due to its high number of floats.


Silk is one of the most highly used fabrics. It was first developed in China by Empress Leizu and has since then emerged as one of the most fashionable fabric to use. Silk is developed by using cocoons of silk moths.

Silk is used in making gowns and evening wear. It is also used in traditional clothing like in India and Mediterranean.

Braided paracord

The paracord is used by military. They are usually used for parachute suspension and for other safety tools. Using it for ID lanyards is another thing. While people pictures it as too large to be hung around the neck, what is really used is the braided paracord within. Yes, there are other cords inside the paracord we see and that is what’s used for lanyard making.

Selecting the Material

Before you buy an ID lanyard, it is best to check for the materials. Choose one that can help you print your organization or brand and is resistant to fading. You should also choose something light and moisture resistant or something that is light and dries easily (of course, depending on the environment it will be displayed and used). Selecting the material for your lanyard will help your promotion and use easier.

Golf Apparel 101: A Guide on Buying Golf Shirts

If you play golf, you can buy your golf apparel at your local sporting goods store or at a specialty golfing store. You can also search the department store for affordable clothes and accessories. You can even shop online. Nowadays, many people choose to shop online because it is easy, convenient, and time-efficient. A lot of brick-and-mortar store owners also have their own websites to attract more customers.

Golf ApparelWhen it comes to buying golf shirts, see to it that you check out different materials. Cotton, for instance, is one of the most common choices. Cotton shirts are light, breathable, and stretchable. They are also available in a wide variety of colors. Many golfers prefer to wear cotton golf apparel both outdoors and indoors because it lets the air circulate around their skin. Cotton shirts are especially ideal on hot summer days as well as days when the weather seems unpredictable.

You can find different types of cotton, such as mercerized cotton and pima cotton. Mercerized cotton is made by removing stray fibers from the cotton thread before it is woven. This makes it smoother, shinier, and stronger than regular cotton. It is also more comfortable. Pima cotton, on the other hand, is high quality cotton that is admired for its long fibers. It is soft, dense, and warm.

Performance fabrics, such as polyester microfiber, are popular materials for golf shirts too. They are lighter than one hundred percent cotton. They are known for their good fit and moisture-wicking properties. You can buy a performance golf shirt that is made with a combination of cotton and polyester. Golf shirts like this can make you more flexible in the golf course. They may also feature antibacterial treatments to protect you against bacteria.

If you need protection against harsh weather conditions, you should wear golf apparel made with engineered fabrics. These golf shirts can protect you against the wind. Their versatility can help you retain your focus on the game even during harsh weather conditions. They will not make you uncomfortable even when playing golf in the rain.

Golf shirts made with cotton blends are generally resistant to stains and are crease proof. They are also less expensive than shirts made with one hundred percent cotton. However, unlike the shirts made with pure cotton, they do not have a high tensile strength and hypoallergenic properties because they have been exposed to harsh chemicals. They also contain synthetic fibers.

Do not forget to consider the weight of your shirt and other golf apparel. Weight generally refers to the thickness of the fabric. Golf shirts usually weigh around four to eight and a half ounces. As mentioned above, shirts that are made with blended or performance fabrics tend to be more lightweight than shirts made with one hundred percent cotton. If you want something more flexible, you should go for lightweight shirts. On the other hand, if you prefer something more suitable for cold weather, you should go for heavier shirts.

Then again, no matter what type of golf shirt you get, you have to make sure that you know what a good fit is. For instance, when you wear a crewneck sweater over your golf shirt, make sure that you keep the collar in for a cleaner look. With this being said, it is imperative that you wear a shirt with a collar. T-shirts are generally not allowed on golf courses.

Likewise, you should keep your shirt tucked in unless you want to look sloppy. If you want to wear patterned golf apparel, see to it that the patterns do not dominate both your shirt and pants. In general, a plain shirt goes best with bold-colored pants, and vice versa. If you are wearing a belt, you should match it with your shirt instead of your shoes.